1. In Freudian psychology, displacement is an unconscious mechanism whereby the mind substitutes either a new aim or a new object for goals felt in their original form to be dangerous or unacceptable.
2. Zygmunt Bauman identify displacement with the concept of exile and states that all humans are displaced in post modern society. The common experience of the present is somehow an experience of people’s exile from themselves and from their situation.
3. Time displacement in sociology refers to the idea that new forms of activities may replace older ones. New activities that cause time displacement are usually technology-based, most commonly they corresponds to information and communication technologies such as Internet and television.
1. Theory: Non-places in Postmodernity
> Marc Augé / Non-places: Spaces of circulation, consumption and communication (Mall /Internet), that do not keep traces of social bonds or collective history.
“The place/non place is an instrument for measuring the degree of sociality and symbolization of a given space.”
(From Non-Places: an introduction to supermodernity, 1992)
> Jean Baudrillard / Postmodernity: A constant social change is the status quo. The modern notion of progress is obsolete as we have lost contact with the "real", and we have nothing left but a continuing fascination with its disappearance.
“It is no longer the buildings that go up in flames and the cities that collapse, it is the hertzian relays of our memory that crackle.”
(From the essay Anorexic Ruins, 1989)
> Zygmut Bauman / Liquid Modernity: shift from society of producers into a society of consumers. According to Bauman, this change reversed Freud's "modern" compromise. Security is exchange with enjoyment freedom: Freedom to purchase, consume, and enjoy life
"In the life-game of the postmodern consumers the rules of game keeps on changing in the course of playing"
(From the essay From Pilgrim to Tourist - Or a short History of Identity, 1996)
2. Liquid Identities:
The Stoller / The Vagabond / The Tourist / The Player
Bauman identifies four conveying identity types in Liquid Modernity and neo-liberal society:
> The stroller is the man in the Crowd but not of the crowd. Human reality becomes a series of episodes, as events without past and consequences, and as mis-meetings (encounters without impact). Now shopping malls make the world safe for life as strolling.
> The vagabond is the prpetuous stranger, apparently free to move and escape. Now the vagabond is a vagabond not because of the refusal to settle down but because of the scarcity of settled places.
> The tourist moves on purpose in search of new experiences. In the tourist world the strange and exotic is domesticated and 'aestheticized'.Home lingers at the horizon of the tourist life as an uncanny mix of shelter and prison.
> The player is the world itself. Those who refuse to obey against the convention do not rebel against the game, they only cease to be players.
All four types have in common that they rende human relationship fragmentary and discontinuous.
4. Further Questions
Do we still differentiate Urban space and the Internet?
Is space still defyining Human Identity?
Does a 'free space' really exist?
Is the (cyber)flâneur dead?
Can moving image be still subversive in recreating places or is it just mediating postmodern society?